States’ Rights refers To the struggle between the federal government and individual states over political power. That held the thing together for longer than it deserved. On the eve of the Civil War, some 4 million Africans and their descendants toiled as slave laborers in the South. 1. This held individuals responsible for harboring freedom-seeking enslaved people, even if they were located in free states. One abolitionist in particular became famous—or infamous, depending on the point of view—for battles that caused the deaths of pro-slavery settlers in Kansas. “States’ rights” also became a Southern watchword for Northern (or “Yankee”) intrusion on the Southern lifestyle. Table 8: Root Causes of the War. Within two years it was a nationwide and worldwide bestseller. But any careful reading of newspapers, magazines or correspondence of the era indicates that here is where the feud began to fester into hatred. The politics over slavery began to heat up in the early to … The Immediate Causes of the Nigerian Civil War are: The first military coup of Jan., 15 1966 led by Major Kaduna Nzeogwu, was seen as an Igbo coup. In the Civil War era, this struggle focused heavily on the institution of slavery and whether the federal government had the right to regulate or even abolish slavery within an individual state. Yet, Brown's best-known fight would be his last when the group attacked Harper's Ferry in 1859, a crime for which he would hang. In both the North and South, these differences influenced views on the powers of the federal government to control the economies and cultures of the states. The fight even erupted on the floor of the Senate when anti-slavery proponent Sen. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was beaten on the head by South Carolina Sen. Preston Brooks. elections) inspired by ‘The Arab Spring ‘ – a wave of violent and non-violent protests which had swept across many North African and Middle Eastern Countries in December – January 2012. The Abolitionist Movement In 1856, Charles Sumner, a 45-year-old Massachusetts senator and abolitionist, conducted a three-hour rant in the Senate chamber against the Kansas-Nebraska Act, focusing in particular on 59-year-old South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler, whom he mocked and compared to a pimp, “having taken as his mistress the harlot, Slavery.” Two days later Congressman Preston Brooks, a nephew of the demeaned South Carolinian, appeared beside Sumner’s desk in the Senate and caned him nearly to death with a gold-headed gutta-percha walking stick. Over the years this group became stronger and by the 1820s had turned into a full-fledged movement, preaching abolition from pulpits and podiums throughout the North, publishing pamphlets and newspapers, and generally stirring up sentiments both fair and foul in the halls of Congress and elsewhere. That was not enough to calm the fears of delegates to an 1860 secession convention in South Carolina. By the 1840s, the abolitionists had decided that slavery was not simply a social evil, but a “moral wrong,” and began to agitate on that basis. While there were many political and cultural differences between the North and the South that contributed to the American Civil War, the main cause of the war was slavery. While the economy of the Northern states was driven by industries, the same was driven by … Much of the Southern apprehension and ire that Lincoln would free the slaves was misplaced. Type or write down the relevant dates and a brief description of each of the At the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, the enslavement of people not only remained legal in all 13 British American colonies, but it also continued to play a significant role in their economies and societies. The rest of the south one by one followed. In this atmosphere, the seeds of white supremacy were sown. The politics of the day were as stormy as the anti-slavery campaigns. This in turn, 40 years later, prompted South Carolina’s prominent senator John C. Calhoun to declare that slavery—far from being merely a “necessary evil”—was actually a “positive good,” because, among other things, in the years since the gin’s invention, the South had become fabulously rich, with cotton constituting some 80 percent of all U.S. exports. South Carolina had threatened this before in the 1830s during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, over a tariff that benefited Northern manufacturers but increased the cost of goods in the South. The population of the pro-slavery states was around 9.6 million in 1850 and only about 350,000 were enslavers. This included many of the wealthiest families, a number of whom owned large plantations. There is the possibility that war might have been avoided, and a solution worked out, had there not been so much mistrust on the part of the South. With all this back and forth carrying on for at least the decade preceding war, by the time hostilities broke out, few either in the North or the South had much use for the other, and minds were set. Others voted down secession—temporarily. The immediate cause of the war was the counter coup d’etat that over threw General Aguiyi Ironsi and the taking over of the leadership of the country by Colonel Yakubu Gowon.. In 1850, to the consternation of Southerners, California was admitted into the Union as a free state—mainly because the Gold Rush miners did not want to find themselves in competition with slave labor. The sides of this debate were largely drawn between northern and southern states, thus widened the growing divide within the nation. Problems came to a head with a violent clash at Lawrence, Kansas.
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