sopat (a soup -> soups). Nowadays the overwhelming majority of Finns have adopted initial consonant clusters in their speech. vene /ʋeneˣ/. Although by definition a singular word, it was originally a compound word that transitioned over time to a more compact and easier form: tämänlajinen (from tämän, 'of this' and lajinen, 'kind') → tänlainen → tällainen, and further to tällä(i)nen for some non-standard speech. This is maybe a silly question, but how easy it is for native Finnish speakers to hear the difference between one vowel/consonant and two? The only, and very specific, challenge seems to lie in the doubling of consonants (e.g., 'Mikko'). User created list . connegative imperatives of the third-person singular, first-person plural, second-person plural and third-person plural. 11. The letter z, found mostly in foreign words and names such as Zulu, may also be pronounced as [t͡s] following the influence of German, thus Zulu /t͡sulu/. * follow Don't follow me, I'm lost. Consonant gradation is something you’re going to run into all the time when learning Finnish. ), the secondary stress moves one syllable further ("to the right") and the preceding foot (syllable group) therefore contains three syllables. In such dialects, the ending often has an assimilating final consonant. Opening diphthongs are in standard Finnish only found in root-initial syllables like in words tietää 'to know', takapyörä 'rear wheel' (from taka- 'back, rear' + pyörä 'wheel'; the latter part is secondarily stressed) or luo 'towards'. A syllable ending in a consonant is called a closed syllable. I can now hear the difference between: "sitä" and "siitä", but for other words I struggle to hear/say the two differently. [1] Standard Finnish is used by professional speakers, such as reporters and news presenters on television. Assibilation occurred prior to the change of the original consonants cluster *kt to /ht/, which can be seen in the inflection of the numerals yksi, kaksi and yhden, kahden. ); because the change from t to s has only occurred in front of i. Learn this spelling list using the 'Look, Say, Cover, Write, Check' activity. The first is simple assimilation with respect to place of articulation (e.g. For more information, Use the list: Double consonant add -ed. It is usually taught that diphthongization occurs only with the combinations listed. Its grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules are almost fully predictable. In modern Finnish the alternation is not productive, due to new cases of the sequence /ti/ having been introduced by later sound changes and loanwords, and assibilation therefore occurs only in certain morphologically defined positions. Consonants k, p, t may change in a certain way when endings are added to the word (verbs and nouns). When a vowel other than i occurs, words like vesi inflect just like other nouns with a single t alternating with the consonant gradated d. This pattern has, however, been reverted in some cases. These rules are generally valid for the standard language, although many Southwestern dialects, for instance, do not recognise the phenomenon at all. The aim of this project is to determine why spelling of words with double consonants in Finnish is relatively hard. the genitive form of the first singular pronoun is regularly /mu/ (standard language minun): /se/ + /on/ + /mu/ → [seomːu] ('it is mine'). Similarly, the length of vowels is distinctive two, and a long vowel is (almost) always written by doubling the vowel letter, e.g. Note the exeptional behavior of a single k, p, and t after s. In words containing only neutral vowels, front vowel harmony is used, e.g. veneh kulkevi' ('the boat is moving'). Examples of gemination: The gemination can occur between morphemes of a single word as in /minulle/ + /kin/ → [minulːekːin] ('to me too'; orthographically minullekin), between parts of a compound word as in /perhe/ + /pɑlɑʋeri/ → [perhepːɑlɑʋeri] ('family meeting'; orthographically perhepalaveri), or between separate words as in /tule/ + /tænne/ → [tuletːænːe] ('come here!'). Finnish words have syllable divisions Before one consonant Between two consonants Before the last of three consonants Between two vowels that do not form a diphthong An open syllable is one ending in a vowel. In standard Finnish, these words are pronounced as they are spelled, but many speakers apply vowel harmony – olumpialaiset, and sekundaarinen or sekyndäärinen. If the word ends with a double consonant followed by zero or more vowels, remove the last consonant (so eläkk-> eläk, aatonaatto-> aatonaato) The full algorithm in Snowball /* Finnish stemmer. It also affects the postpositions and endings of words. | Double consonants and double vowels are extremely common in Finnish, meaning it isn’t uncommon to find words such as ‘liikkeessään’ (showroom). "Consonant gradation" is the term used for a set of alternations which pervade the language, between a "strong grade" and a "weak grade". To my surprise I found out that according to some investigators, Japanese should also be considered as an Altaic language. [9] Kello and tuuli yield the inflectional forms kellossa 'in a clock' and tuulessa 'in a wind'. For example, in many dialects, the abessive ending is -ta or -tä, i.e. Even then, the Southwestern dialects formed an exception: consonant clusters, especially those with plosives, trills or nasals, are common: examples include place names Friitala and Preiviiki near the town Pori, or town Kristiinankaupunki ('Kristinestad'). V can be realized as a doubled vowel or a diphthong. Its grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules are almost fully predictable. if a news reporter or a high official consistently and publicly realises Belgia ('Belgium') as Pelkia. the partitive form of "fish" is pronounced kalaa in the quantity-insensitive dialects but kallaa in the quantity-sensitive ones (cf. Finnish sandhi is extremely frequent, appearing between many words and morphemes, in formal standard language and in everyday spoken language. A doubled vowel is pronounced longer than a single vowel and a doubled consonant is held longer than a single consonant. In most registers, it is never written down; only dialectal transcriptions preserve it, the rest settling for a morphemic notation. may produce veden (sg. [15] (In the close to seven centuries during which Finland was under first Swedish, then Russian rule, Swedish speakers dominated the government and economy.) Syllables may be open, i.e., end in a vowel, or closed, i.e., end in a consonant. | Historically, morpheme-boundary gemination is the result of regressive assimilation. Hei! Originally Finnish syllables could not start with two consonants but many loans containing these have added this to the inventory. In Finnish, diphthongs are considered phonemic units, contrasting with both doubled vowels and with single vowels. essay Have you finished your essay yet? Struggle with pronouncing single vs double letters in Finnish? Any of the vowels can be found in this position. Finnish, like many other Uralic languages, has the phenomenon called vowel harmony, which restricts the cooccurrence in a word of vowels belonging to different articulatory subgroups. Both forms occur and neither one of them is standardised, since in any case it does not affect writing. Here are all the sounds and letters in Finnish. At some point in time, these /h/ and /k/s were assimilated by the initial consonant of a following word, e.g. Consonant Gradation Plosives (stops) in Finnish undergo a process called gradation. phonetically speaking) a diphthong does not sound like a sequence of two different vowels; instead, the sound of the first vowel gradually glides into the sound of the second one with full vocalization lasting through the whole sound. In some dictionaries compiled for foreigners or linguists, however, the tendency of geminating the following consonant is marked by a superscript x as in perhex. Reproducibility Project: Psychology [citation needed] Thus, if secondary stress would normally fall on a light (CV.) Its grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules are almost fully predictable. The stress in Finnish words is always on the first syllable. For example, huutelu ('shouting') and huuhtelu ('flushing') are distinct words, where the initial syllables huu- and huuh- are of different length. Phonologically, however, Finnish diphthongs usually are analyzed as sequences (this in contrast to languages like English, where the diphthongs are best analyzed as independent phonemes). However, there are contexts where weak grade fails to occur in a closed syllable, and there are contexts where the weak grade occurs in an open syllable. Verbtype 1 is the most common of the 6 verbtypes. Finnish is one of the most transparent alphabetic orthographies (Seymour et al., 2003). OSF does not support the use of Internet Explorer. Main content: Double Consonants Other contents: Doubling f, l and s Add to my workbooks (6) Download file pdf Embed in my website or blog Add to Google Classroom Add to Microsoft Teams Share through Whatsapp: Link to this worksheet: Copy: latiajohnson34 Finish!! In elaborate standard language, the gemination affects even morphemes with a vowel beginning: /otɑ/ + /omenɑ/ → [otɑʔːomenɑ] or [otɑʔomenɑ] ('take an apple!'). Some forms within the inflection, however, will require a "weaker" grade, in which case the doubling is removed, or a sonorant is inserted. Like Hungarian and Icelandic, Finnish always places the primary stress on the first syllable of a word. šakki 'chess' and sakki 'a gang (of people)'. Test yourself using the 'Listen and Spell' spelling test. For instance, the modern Finnish word for 'boat' vene used to be veneh (a form still existing in the closely related Karelian language). whether kolme ('three') should cause a gemination of the following initial consonant or not: [kolmeʋɑristɑ] or [kolmeʋːɑristɑ] ('three crows'). In many Finnish dialects, including that of Helsinki, the gemination at morpheme boundaries has become more widespread due to the loss of additional final consonants, which appear only as gemination of the following consonant, cf. nom.)' Close. The opening diphthongs come from earlier doubled mid vowels: /*oo/ > [uo̯], /*ee/ > [ie̯], /*øø/ > [yø̯]. However, /ny/ + /se/ ('now it [does something]') is pronounced [nysːe] and not *[nyse] (although the latter would be permissible in the dialect of Turku). ... although the common case where strong and weak forms only differ in the single or double form of a final consonant can be dealt with. Many of the remaining "irregular" patterns of Finnish noun and verb inflection are explained by a change of a historical *ti to /si/. [18] Secondary stress normally falls on odd-numbered syllables. The orthography generally favors the single form, if it exists. syllable but this is followed by a heavy syllable (CVV. TOP Guidelines They are grouped into three groups; front, neutral and back vowels. First off I must warn, there is some deep analytical sh*t coming up. Verbs below that undergo to consonant gradation are marked with KPT below. Finnish words may thus have two, and sometimes three stems: a word such as vesi 'water (sg. This change takes place when we add an ending to a word. The usual pronunciation is [ˈylæ.ˌosɑ] (with those vowels belonging to separate syllables). Whereas some forms will naturally exist in "strong" grade, double consonants will appear, such as pp or kk. Finnish has a phonological contrast between single (/æ e i ø y ɑ o u/) and doubled (/ææ ee ii øø yy ɑɑ oo uu/) vowels. There are 13 consonant phonemes in Finnish: [d], [h], [j], [k], [l], [m], [n], [ŋ], [p], [r], [s], [t], and [v]. [6] Phonetically the doubled vowels are single continuous sounds ([æː eː iː øː yː ɑː oː uː]) where the extra duration of the hold phase of the vowel signals that they count as two successive vowel phonemes rather than one. [8] In particular, no native noncompound word can contain vowels from the group {a, o, u} together with vowels from the group {ä, ö, y}. balloon I brought a helium balloon to the party. vauva [ʋɑuʋːɑ], raijata [rɑijːɑtɑ]), this distinction is not phonemic, and is not indicated in spelling. The failure to use them correctly is often ridiculed in the media,[citation needed] e.g. Among the phonological processes operating in Finnish dialects are diphthongization and diphthong reduction. Don't be frightened by double consonants, elongated vowels and suffixes. A final consonant of a Finnish word, though not a syllable, must be a coronal one. This is the most common error in early spelling (Lyytinen et al., 1995). Privacy Policy Other foreign fricatives are not. Importantly, it will also inform Finnish teachers how to best help their students with the spelling of these relatively challenging words. See the diagram: The vowels in blue are front vowels (or "hard"), the vowels in green are neutral and the vowels in yellow are back vowels (or "soft"). Since that time new doubled mid vowels have come to the language from various sources. Thus, kenka (shoe) is pronounced [ken kae]. Finnish consonants (konsonantit) are either short or long: K; KK; If the length of a short (or single) consonant is K, the length of a long (or double) consonant is K * 2. On the other hand, omenanamme ('as our apple') has a light third syllable (na) and a heavy fourth syllable (nam), so secondary stress falls on the fourth syllable: ómenanàmme. Some other common type 1 verbs: Finnish is one of the most transparent alphabetic orthographies (Seymour et al., 2003). pimeys 'darkness' from pimeä 'dark' + /-(U)US/ '-ness' and siistiytyä 'to tidy up oneself' from siisti 'tidy' + /-UTU/ (a kind of middle voice) + /-(d)A/ (infinitive suffix). “aa”. It’s something that affects both nouns and verbs, though in different ways. Vowel harmony affects inflectional suffixes and derivational suffixes, which have two forms, one for use with back vowels, and the other with front vowels. Community Research Foundation Employee Self Service, Sony A7iii Price, Timber Table Top, Grade 5 Reading Comprehension Worksheets Pdf, Quran Memorization App, What Is Variety In Big Data, Where To Buy Custard Powder Near Me, The Paragon Chicago Reviews, How To Catch Lake Trout In Summer, Lincoln Welding School, Ath-dsr7bt Vs Sony Wh-1000xm3, What To Say In Spanish While Making Love, Download Best Themes Free DownloadFree Download ThemesDownload Nulled ThemesDownload Best Themes Free Downloadonline free coursedownload lava firmwareDownload Themes Freefree download udemy paid courseCompartilhe!" /> sopat (a soup -> soups). Nowadays the overwhelming majority of Finns have adopted initial consonant clusters in their speech. vene /ʋeneˣ/. Although by definition a singular word, it was originally a compound word that transitioned over time to a more compact and easier form: tämänlajinen (from tämän, 'of this' and lajinen, 'kind') → tänlainen → tällainen, and further to tällä(i)nen for some non-standard speech. This is maybe a silly question, but how easy it is for native Finnish speakers to hear the difference between one vowel/consonant and two? The only, and very specific, challenge seems to lie in the doubling of consonants (e.g., 'Mikko'). User created list . connegative imperatives of the third-person singular, first-person plural, second-person plural and third-person plural. 11. The letter z, found mostly in foreign words and names such as Zulu, may also be pronounced as [t͡s] following the influence of German, thus Zulu /t͡sulu/. * follow Don't follow me, I'm lost. Consonant gradation is something you’re going to run into all the time when learning Finnish. ), the secondary stress moves one syllable further ("to the right") and the preceding foot (syllable group) therefore contains three syllables. In such dialects, the ending often has an assimilating final consonant. Opening diphthongs are in standard Finnish only found in root-initial syllables like in words tietää 'to know', takapyörä 'rear wheel' (from taka- 'back, rear' + pyörä 'wheel'; the latter part is secondarily stressed) or luo 'towards'. A syllable ending in a consonant is called a closed syllable. I can now hear the difference between: "sitä" and "siitä", but for other words I struggle to hear/say the two differently. [1] Standard Finnish is used by professional speakers, such as reporters and news presenters on television. Assibilation occurred prior to the change of the original consonants cluster *kt to /ht/, which can be seen in the inflection of the numerals yksi, kaksi and yhden, kahden. ); because the change from t to s has only occurred in front of i. Learn this spelling list using the 'Look, Say, Cover, Write, Check' activity. The first is simple assimilation with respect to place of articulation (e.g. For more information, Use the list: Double consonant add -ed. It is usually taught that diphthongization occurs only with the combinations listed. Its grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules are almost fully predictable. In modern Finnish the alternation is not productive, due to new cases of the sequence /ti/ having been introduced by later sound changes and loanwords, and assibilation therefore occurs only in certain morphologically defined positions. Consonants k, p, t may change in a certain way when endings are added to the word (verbs and nouns). When a vowel other than i occurs, words like vesi inflect just like other nouns with a single t alternating with the consonant gradated d. This pattern has, however, been reverted in some cases. These rules are generally valid for the standard language, although many Southwestern dialects, for instance, do not recognise the phenomenon at all. The aim of this project is to determine why spelling of words with double consonants in Finnish is relatively hard. the genitive form of the first singular pronoun is regularly /mu/ (standard language minun): /se/ + /on/ + /mu/ → [seomːu] ('it is mine'). Similarly, the length of vowels is distinctive two, and a long vowel is (almost) always written by doubling the vowel letter, e.g. Note the exeptional behavior of a single k, p, and t after s. In words containing only neutral vowels, front vowel harmony is used, e.g. veneh kulkevi' ('the boat is moving'). Examples of gemination: The gemination can occur between morphemes of a single word as in /minulle/ + /kin/ → [minulːekːin] ('to me too'; orthographically minullekin), between parts of a compound word as in /perhe/ + /pɑlɑʋeri/ → [perhepːɑlɑʋeri] ('family meeting'; orthographically perhepalaveri), or between separate words as in /tule/ + /tænne/ → [tuletːænːe] ('come here!'). Finnish words have syllable divisions Before one consonant Between two consonants Before the last of three consonants Between two vowels that do not form a diphthong An open syllable is one ending in a vowel. In standard Finnish, these words are pronounced as they are spelled, but many speakers apply vowel harmony – olumpialaiset, and sekundaarinen or sekyndäärinen. If the word ends with a double consonant followed by zero or more vowels, remove the last consonant (so eläkk-> eläk, aatonaatto-> aatonaato) The full algorithm in Snowball /* Finnish stemmer. It also affects the postpositions and endings of words. | Double consonants and double vowels are extremely common in Finnish, meaning it isn’t uncommon to find words such as ‘liikkeessään’ (showroom). "Consonant gradation" is the term used for a set of alternations which pervade the language, between a "strong grade" and a "weak grade". To my surprise I found out that according to some investigators, Japanese should also be considered as an Altaic language. [9] Kello and tuuli yield the inflectional forms kellossa 'in a clock' and tuulessa 'in a wind'. For example, in many dialects, the abessive ending is -ta or -tä, i.e. Even then, the Southwestern dialects formed an exception: consonant clusters, especially those with plosives, trills or nasals, are common: examples include place names Friitala and Preiviiki near the town Pori, or town Kristiinankaupunki ('Kristinestad'). V can be realized as a doubled vowel or a diphthong. Its grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules are almost fully predictable. if a news reporter or a high official consistently and publicly realises Belgia ('Belgium') as Pelkia. the partitive form of "fish" is pronounced kalaa in the quantity-insensitive dialects but kallaa in the quantity-sensitive ones (cf. Finnish sandhi is extremely frequent, appearing between many words and morphemes, in formal standard language and in everyday spoken language. A doubled vowel is pronounced longer than a single vowel and a doubled consonant is held longer than a single consonant. In most registers, it is never written down; only dialectal transcriptions preserve it, the rest settling for a morphemic notation. may produce veden (sg. [15] (In the close to seven centuries during which Finland was under first Swedish, then Russian rule, Swedish speakers dominated the government and economy.) Syllables may be open, i.e., end in a vowel, or closed, i.e., end in a consonant. | Historically, morpheme-boundary gemination is the result of regressive assimilation. Hei! Originally Finnish syllables could not start with two consonants but many loans containing these have added this to the inventory. In Finnish, diphthongs are considered phonemic units, contrasting with both doubled vowels and with single vowels. essay Have you finished your essay yet? Struggle with pronouncing single vs double letters in Finnish? Any of the vowels can be found in this position. Finnish, like many other Uralic languages, has the phenomenon called vowel harmony, which restricts the cooccurrence in a word of vowels belonging to different articulatory subgroups. Both forms occur and neither one of them is standardised, since in any case it does not affect writing. Here are all the sounds and letters in Finnish. At some point in time, these /h/ and /k/s were assimilated by the initial consonant of a following word, e.g. Consonant Gradation Plosives (stops) in Finnish undergo a process called gradation. phonetically speaking) a diphthong does not sound like a sequence of two different vowels; instead, the sound of the first vowel gradually glides into the sound of the second one with full vocalization lasting through the whole sound. In some dictionaries compiled for foreigners or linguists, however, the tendency of geminating the following consonant is marked by a superscript x as in perhex. Reproducibility Project: Psychology [citation needed] Thus, if secondary stress would normally fall on a light (CV.) Its grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules are almost fully predictable. The stress in Finnish words is always on the first syllable. For example, huutelu ('shouting') and huuhtelu ('flushing') are distinct words, where the initial syllables huu- and huuh- are of different length. Phonologically, however, Finnish diphthongs usually are analyzed as sequences (this in contrast to languages like English, where the diphthongs are best analyzed as independent phonemes). However, there are contexts where weak grade fails to occur in a closed syllable, and there are contexts where the weak grade occurs in an open syllable. Verbtype 1 is the most common of the 6 verbtypes. Finnish is one of the most transparent alphabetic orthographies (Seymour et al., 2003). OSF does not support the use of Internet Explorer. Main content: Double Consonants Other contents: Doubling f, l and s Add to my workbooks (6) Download file pdf Embed in my website or blog Add to Google Classroom Add to Microsoft Teams Share through Whatsapp: Link to this worksheet: Copy: latiajohnson34 Finish!! In elaborate standard language, the gemination affects even morphemes with a vowel beginning: /otɑ/ + /omenɑ/ → [otɑʔːomenɑ] or [otɑʔomenɑ] ('take an apple!'). Some forms within the inflection, however, will require a "weaker" grade, in which case the doubling is removed, or a sonorant is inserted. Like Hungarian and Icelandic, Finnish always places the primary stress on the first syllable of a word. šakki 'chess' and sakki 'a gang (of people)'. Test yourself using the 'Listen and Spell' spelling test. For instance, the modern Finnish word for 'boat' vene used to be veneh (a form still existing in the closely related Karelian language). whether kolme ('three') should cause a gemination of the following initial consonant or not: [kolmeʋɑristɑ] or [kolmeʋːɑristɑ] ('three crows'). In many Finnish dialects, including that of Helsinki, the gemination at morpheme boundaries has become more widespread due to the loss of additional final consonants, which appear only as gemination of the following consonant, cf. nom.)' Close. The opening diphthongs come from earlier doubled mid vowels: /*oo/ > [uo̯], /*ee/ > [ie̯], /*øø/ > [yø̯]. However, /ny/ + /se/ ('now it [does something]') is pronounced [nysːe] and not *[nyse] (although the latter would be permissible in the dialect of Turku). ... although the common case where strong and weak forms only differ in the single or double form of a final consonant can be dealt with. Many of the remaining "irregular" patterns of Finnish noun and verb inflection are explained by a change of a historical *ti to /si/. [18] Secondary stress normally falls on odd-numbered syllables. The orthography generally favors the single form, if it exists. syllable but this is followed by a heavy syllable (CVV. TOP Guidelines They are grouped into three groups; front, neutral and back vowels. First off I must warn, there is some deep analytical sh*t coming up. Verbs below that undergo to consonant gradation are marked with KPT below. Finnish words may thus have two, and sometimes three stems: a word such as vesi 'water (sg. This change takes place when we add an ending to a word. The usual pronunciation is [ˈylæ.ˌosɑ] (with those vowels belonging to separate syllables). Whereas some forms will naturally exist in "strong" grade, double consonants will appear, such as pp or kk. Finnish has a phonological contrast between single (/æ e i ø y ɑ o u/) and doubled (/ææ ee ii øø yy ɑɑ oo uu/) vowels. There are 13 consonant phonemes in Finnish: [d], [h], [j], [k], [l], [m], [n], [ŋ], [p], [r], [s], [t], and [v]. [6] Phonetically the doubled vowels are single continuous sounds ([æː eː iː øː yː ɑː oː uː]) where the extra duration of the hold phase of the vowel signals that they count as two successive vowel phonemes rather than one. [8] In particular, no native noncompound word can contain vowels from the group {a, o, u} together with vowels from the group {ä, ö, y}. balloon I brought a helium balloon to the party. vauva [ʋɑuʋːɑ], raijata [rɑijːɑtɑ]), this distinction is not phonemic, and is not indicated in spelling. The failure to use them correctly is often ridiculed in the media,[citation needed] e.g. Among the phonological processes operating in Finnish dialects are diphthongization and diphthong reduction. Don't be frightened by double consonants, elongated vowels and suffixes. A final consonant of a Finnish word, though not a syllable, must be a coronal one. This is the most common error in early spelling (Lyytinen et al., 1995). Privacy Policy Other foreign fricatives are not. Importantly, it will also inform Finnish teachers how to best help their students with the spelling of these relatively challenging words. See the diagram: The vowels in blue are front vowels (or "hard"), the vowels in green are neutral and the vowels in yellow are back vowels (or "soft"). Since that time new doubled mid vowels have come to the language from various sources. Thus, kenka (shoe) is pronounced [ken kae]. Finnish consonants (konsonantit) are either short or long: K; KK; If the length of a short (or single) consonant is K, the length of a long (or double) consonant is K * 2. On the other hand, omenanamme ('as our apple') has a light third syllable (na) and a heavy fourth syllable (nam), so secondary stress falls on the fourth syllable: ómenanàmme. Some other common type 1 verbs: Finnish is one of the most transparent alphabetic orthographies (Seymour et al., 2003). pimeys 'darkness' from pimeä 'dark' + /-(U)US/ '-ness' and siistiytyä 'to tidy up oneself' from siisti 'tidy' + /-UTU/ (a kind of middle voice) + /-(d)A/ (infinitive suffix). “aa”. It’s something that affects both nouns and verbs, though in different ways. Vowel harmony affects inflectional suffixes and derivational suffixes, which have two forms, one for use with back vowels, and the other with front vowels. 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finnish double consonant

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