Yet, Brown's best-known fight would be his last when the group attacked Harper's Ferry in 1859, a crime for which he would hang. But during the Kansas controversy a confrontation between a senator and a congressman stood out as particularly shocking. To assuage Southern fury at the admission of free California, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which made Northerners personally responsible for the return of runaway slaves. and hanged; but when it came out that he was being financed by Northern abolitionists, Southern anger was profuse and furious—especially after the Northern press elevated Brown to the status of hero and martyr. Summary Answer . An attempt was made to ensure that equal numbers of free states and pro-slavery states were admitted to the Union, but over time this proved difficult. Much of the Southern apprehension and ire that Lincoln would free the slaves was misplaced. As America began to expand—first with the lands gained from the Louisiana Purchase and later with the Mexican War—the question arose of whether new states would be pro-slavery states or free states. Ultimately, this resulted in Congress passing the Missouri Compromise, which decreed that Missouri could come in as a slave state (and Maine as a free state) but any other state created north of Missouri’s southern border would have to be free. Abolitionists fought to have slavery declared illegal in those territories, as the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 had done in the territory that became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. Check all that apply. Things had come a long way during the nearly 250 years since the Dutchman delivered his cargo of African slaves to the wharf at Jamestown, but in 1860 almost everyone agreed that a war wouldn’t last long. They were responsible for the Pottawatomie Massacre, in which they killed five settlers who were pro-slavery. Additional territories gained from the U.S.–Mexican War of 1846–1848 heightened the slavery debate. This caused it to become known as "Bleeding Kansas." Simmering animosities between North and South signaled an American apocalypse. Having acknowledged that, let me also say I have long believed there is no more concise or stirring accounting for the war than the sentiments propounded by Irish poet William Butler Yeats in The Second Coming, some lines of which are included in this essay. By denying slaveholders the right to extend their boundaries, Lincoln would in effect also be weakening their power in Washington, and over time this would almost inevitably have resulted in the abolition of slavery, as sooner or later the land would have worn out. Join now. "Statistical view of the United States in 1850." A visitor in the 1830s described the relentless cycle of the planters’ misallocation of spare capital: “To sell cotton to buy Negroes—to make more cotton to buy more Negroes—‘ad infinitum.’”. The population of the pro-slavery states was around 9.6 million in 1850 and only about 350,000 were enslavers. This included many of the wealthiest families, a number of whom owned large plantations. Such was the Southern mindset, but the tariff nearly kicked off the war 30 years early because, as the furor rose, South Carolina’s Calhoun, who was then running for vice president of the United States, declared that states—his own state in particular—were under no obligation to obey the federal tariff law, or to collect it from ships entering its harbors. All of the issues of the young nation were dividing the political parties and reshaping the established two-party system of Whigs and Democrats. But when Northern abolitionists made a martyr of him, Southerners came to believe this was proof the North intended to wage a war of extermination against white Southerners. Catholics also maintained their solidarity, prompting cynics to suggest it was only because they owed their allegiance to the pope of Rome rather than to any state, country or ideal. The Immediate Causes of the Nigerian Civil War are: The first military coup of Jan., 15 1966 led by Major Kaduna Nzeogwu, was seen as an Igbo coup. In plain acknowledgement that slavery was an offensive practice, Congress in 1808 banned the importation of African slaves. Within two years it was a nationwide and worldwide bestseller. Some abolitionists actively helped runaway slaves to escape via “the Underground Railroad,” and there were instances in which men, even lawmen, sent to retrieve runaways were attacked and beaten by abolitionist mobs. As with most wars, however, there was no single cause. The incident also set the stage for the states’ rights dispute, pitting state laws against the notion of federal sovereignty—an argument which became ongoing into the next century, and the next. The battle at fort sumer's is consider by many to be the start of the Civil War. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. Federal Government there is a key concept answer. Throughout the North, the caning incident triggered profound indignation that was transformed into support for a new anti-slavery political party. For a time it appeared the practice was on its way to extinction. Table 8: Root Causes of the War. As a practical matter, all of this assured a victory for the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln, who was widely, if wrongly, viewed in the South as a rabid abolitionist. When Lincoln was … This economic disparity also led to irreconcilable differences in societal and political views. Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer by Gordon Leidner of Great American History. However, when problems arose, the weaknesses of the Articles caused the leaders of the time to come together at the Constitutional Convention and create, in secret, the U.S. Constitution. War had begun. To the slave holding states, this meant Northerners wanted to choose which parts of the Constitution they would enforce, while expecting the South to honor the entire document. Interestingly, slavery wasn't the biggest issue in question at the start of the Civil War. Causes of the Civil War. It was designed to protect both Northern and Southern interests. Underground Railroad This inflammatory piece of legislation, passed with the aid of Northern politicians, imposed a tax or duty on imported goods that caused practically everything purchased in the South to rise nearly half-again in price. By then national politics had become almost entirely sectional, a dangerous business, pitting North against South—and vice versa—in practically all matters, however remote. Because the war resulted from the secession of seven Southern states and their formation of the Confederate States of America after Abraham Lincoln’s election as president on November 6, 1860, and his inauguration on March 4, 1861, whatever caused those states to secede is the primary cause of the Civil War. elections) inspired by ‘The Arab Spring ‘ – a wave of violent and non-violent protests which had swept across many North African and Middle Eastern Countries in December – January 2012. What were the immediate causes of the Civil War? Others voted down secession—temporarily. While we will examine some various reasons for the buildup of tension between the Southern states and the . That dispute led to secession, and secession brought about a war in which the Northern and Western states and territories fought to preserve the Union, and the South fought to establish Southern independence as a new confederation of states under its own constitution. [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’0′ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’25’ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’50’ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’75’ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’100′ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], [cat totalposts=’25’ offset=’125′ category=’1088′ excerpt=’true’ order=’desc’ orderby=’post_date’], VIDEO: Battery H Of The 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery At Gettysburg, Dan Bullock: The youngest American killed in the Vietnam War. Contrary to its intentions, the act actually galvanized Northern sentiments against slavery because it seemed to demand direct assent to, and personal complicity with, the practice of human bondage. On the eve of the Civil War, some 4 million Africans and their descendants toiled as slave laborers in the South. Harriet Tubman But the U.S. Senate, by a sort of gentleman’s agreement laced with the usual bribes and threats, had remained 50-50, meaning that whenever a territory was admitted as a free state, the South got to add a corresponding slave state—and vice versa. As impoverished refugees from the potato famine of the 1840s and 1850s, many of these new immigrants could be hired as factory workers at low wages, thus reducing the need for enslaved people in the North. These were the first pangs of sectional dissension. In Kansas, particularly, violent clashes between proponents of the two ideologies occurred. For the most part, Southerners ate it up. B) Abraham Lincoln was elected president. The South simply did not believe him. During the 1840-1850’s the states from the North and South were evenly divided in Congress. Abraham Lincoln’s Election, Explore articles from the History Net archives about Civil War Causes. This was because the South had become used to shipping its cotton to England and France and in return receiving boatloads of inexpensive European goods, including clothing made from its own cotton. Log in. All of this led to disagreements on issues such as taxes, tariffs and internal improvements as well as states rights versus federal rights. In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act, sponsored by frequent presidential candidate Stephen A. Douglas, overturned the Missouri Compromise and permitted settlers in the Kansas Territory to choose for themselves whether they wanted a free or slave state. 1. On the night of October 16, 1859, Brown and a band of followers seized the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in what is believed to have been an attempt to arm a slave insurrection.
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